Historically, when citizens all around the globe shared common days of blue skies and fresh air, no one was aware of the necessity of environmental protection. And ironically, it was until recently that people came to realize the signiciance of being eco-friendly. And among all the measures that have been advocated, personally, I believe the second option is the most feasible one.
Initially, it must be admitted that desertation, white pollution and air contamination resulting from exhaust fumes are all challenging problems to be tackled. In detail, the loss of vegetation in not only wilderness areas but also urban areas has precipitated a considerable number of undesirable consequences, from greenhouse effect to floods, which have claimed thousands of lives in recent years. Also, white pollution, mainly involving plastic products, have damaged the environment as well as bringing about recycling problems that create trash heaps in cities and suburbs. Similarly, excessive use of private cars have also been a great concern, increasing potential health danger including respiratory diseases and heart attack. Therefore, in this case, all the problems impose serious danger to the society and should be taken into account.
When viewed from another angle, however, the second approach can be achieved more easily without the assistance from the local government or other organizations. Typically, planting trees costs a significant amount of investment that individuals can hardly afford. Plus, no one can easily construct a park without the permission from authorities, allowing construction projects on a massive land, let alone the subsequent plans to carry out. Likewise, while the increase access to public transportation systems seems plausible at first but is ultimately dependent on the official support. For example, in Beijing, the capital of China where numerous passenger rely on buses and subways as a daily commuting approach, one of the most frequent complaints is the safety and, of course, the chaotic environment of the transportation. As a consequence, without the investment from governments, residents can barely call for more use of the systems. But it is another story with usage of plastic bags. In fact, the plastic bags can easily be supplanted by those made of canvas or any other recyclabe material. It costs little to do so and therefore make it the most likely choice to be successful.
To sum up, from my perspective, advising local shops to stop offering free plastic bags is the most effective and likely option for individuals to make.
综合写作：阅读：vent mining是一种从海床上提取金属资源的方式，具体说明了它的三个有利之处：1）海底中蕴含多种陆地上已经耗竭的金属资源，以此能保证陆地资源源源不断；2）vent mining的具体开采地点一般离海床有一定距离，因此不会伤及海底生物和生态圈；3）vent mining可以被合理管制，因为现有的国际法和国际组织、机构已经在运营之中，能保证mining的合理合法进行。
听力：vent mining可能会有的各种问题，以上三方面都不合理。1）虽然海底确实有多种资源，但从海底提取（具体而言是从海床上分离这些金属资源）、并把他们传送到海面以上都需要新技术，这些新技术目前不存在，开发的代价很大；2）vent mining的开采地点是离海底有一定距离，但开采过程中有害物质产生，会随着海水向各个方向扩散，这样就会影响到海洋生物；3）vent mining很可能没法管，因为如果开采起来，很多国家和地区会在自己的海域里操作，这样国际法就不适用（国际法只能管公海），因此无法介入，导致没办法被管理。