1）O这个地方的商人在地中海和别人交易的时候，他们的物品were native to南亚，尤其是rare wood和ivory;
2）从地中海到O地要花一年半时间才能航行结束，正好跟南亚到地中海的距离相匹配（Consistent with the idea that O is located in SA）;
3）the words for the goods in the eastern地中海are similar with the items in SA language
2）以前的航海术（navigating technology primitive）不发达，需要频繁停靠（frequently stop），所以段距离也要花很长时间；
Which one do you prefer： 1） a company offering you a job with challenging and interesting project but less vacation days; 2） another company offering you a job that is not so challenging and interesting but more vacation days.
Life on Mars
Do you agree with the idea that university students who are caught cheating in exams should be asked to leave school？
I don‘t think it’s appropriate to expel students who are caught cheating in exams. Because everyone deserves a second chance to correct their mistakes， and it‘s inevitable for ordinary people to make mistakes. The students who are cheating in exams might simply want to get a good grade without having enough time to prepare. I believe the principle of schooling is to educate and discipline people so that they could correct their wrong behavior. If these students have to leave school， then there’s no point of educating. Also， I think the punishment is a little bit too harsh on students. Instead， the university could ask them to take the course again next semester， or cancel their scores.
Some college students like to spend their free time studying another course or doing schoolwork. Others like to join a club and enjoy club activities. Which do you think is better and why？
Well， I‘d like to spend my free time joining a club and participating in club activities. Because I think I’ve already spent enough time on studying during the lectures and seminars. It‘s not necessary to devote my spare time to learn another subject. Then my life would be pretty boring and tiring. However， joining a club could enrich my university life and fully relax myself. For example， I took part in the singing club in my university， and performing in choir concerts provided me with a lot of beautiful memories. I also made many friends in the club， whom I still contact with after graduation. So I’d prefer to join a club and take part in more activities.
In the proposal letter， the student suggests that the university should display more art works in the library rather than the campus gallery. In the conversation， the woman agrees with the idea for two reasons. First， she thinks that the art gallery is located far away from the campus area. Students hardly ever visit there and most of them won‘t be willing to spend time appreciating art. However， in the school library there are always many students studying or preparing for exams. So it could hugely increase the chances for students to pay attention to the art works once they are shown in the library. Second， she points out that the library is newly established and it lacks of proper ornament. If the university replace these art pieces to the library， they could also serve as beautiful decorations. Thus， the library would look nicer.
In the lecture， the professor uses an example of paradise birds to explain a biology concept. The same species of animals could vary from size to shape， and this type of difference can play an important role in helping the animals survive. For example， male paradise birds and female birds are different in shape and color. Male paradise birds have long feather with beautiful colors. And their body size tends to be larger than the female ones. These features are especially ideal for them to attract female birds to mate with. But it also increases the exposure to predators. On the contrary， female paradise birds have short feather with simple colors. Most of them are brown. And they are comparatively smaller than their male partners. So they are better at taking care of babies and these features enable them to blend into the environment more easily.
The woman is facing a problem， because she needs to go home to see her sister during the summer vacation， but she also wants to take part in a geology trip. There are two possible solutions. First， she can go home to visit her sister. Second， she can take the trip and see her sister next summer. Well， if I were her， I would choose the first suggestion. Because I think when it comes to time conflict， family always goes first. Since her sister is really looking forward to seeing her at home， if she tells her sister that she couldn’t make it because of the trip， then her sister will be very disappointed. And also， I think next semester there will be plenty of trips for her to take with her friends. She won‘t miss anything and may still enjoy herself during the trip.
The use of chemical dye has brought two major benefits to our society. First， clothes fashion has changed since chemical dye became available. Long time ago， people had to use natural dye in cloth production. And it could be really expensive to manufacture colorful clothes. For example， the purple color was made from snails， and it could consume thousands of them to dye cloth. So only wealthy people could afford to wear colorful clothes. But with the development of chemical dye， the cost of making colorful clothes dropped dramatically and more people could be able to buy it. Another positive influence was shown in medical field. Scientists have discovered that a special yellow dye could effectively kill bacteria. By using this kind of chemical dye in medical treatment， doctors could prevent injuries from getting infected. And this has led to a breakthrough in medicine.
Conversation 1 学生向老师寻求帮助
一个学英语的帅锅为了毕业要求选修了有机化学课，化学老师感叹怪不得你提了这么多有趣的问题，对其他学生也有好处。帅锅为了一个考试的计算问题找老师。这门课要求有相应计算知识，帅锅在高中做过类似的，于是就选上了。教授很诧异，但是这次考试计算又不一样。帅锅于是私下找tutor教他，但是tutor太忙了。教授推荐他去学生中心找，帅锅想到室友也参加了辅导，于是决定 work with him了。
Lecture 1 chemistry ecology 蛾的逃生技能：生理的和化学的
讲的是化学在生态学的重要作用。例子1是 moth和butterfly 都有swing scale，被蜘蛛网捕捉到的时候，这种模特还可以挣扎着脱离这些scale从而逃脱，这是mechanic的例子；还有一种R moth 它们通过食用R plant获取毒素从而储存在它们的swing里。它们被蜘蛛网捕捉到就不挣扎，反而转移蜘蛛的注意力，让蜘蛛咬一口它们的翅膀，尝到苦味就会放走它们了。这就是一个chemical的例子。
教授提到一个1953年的实验，志愿者在不同大脑工作状态时大脑血氧量是一样的，这和我们的传统认知是不一样的。后来介绍了大脑占2%质量比，但是消耗了20%的卡路里。后来一种黑科技PET被用来进行研究，这种技术能够对大脑活跃部分成像，结果发现无论是reading还是relax大脑的lightness是一样的，进一步发现了一个default部分。通过和海马区功能进行对比可以推测它的功能recall memory daydream。这个default 的发现就像在太阳系里发现了新星球一样。
Conversation 2 orientation meeting
学校想为今年的新生组织一个orientation meeting，需要有经验的出席指导，于是找了参加过这个项目的帅锅。通过提前给新生做survey了解他们关注的点，然后不同的topic 得以确认 food， roommate。每个advisor只指导一个topic to group of student，所以并不是那个group只能了解一个点。帅锅不是一个很活泼的，比较害羞，但是进入大学之后他参加了很多 club， volleyball team之类的来克服。
Lecture 3 literature autobiography 和 memoir的区别
先是字面区别： auto（self） bio （person）graphy （关于文学）。而m 起源于法语和 memory有关。一般objective描述一个人的整个人生；相对subjective只是写一个人人生特定时间段。Conventional 更多地写event，譬如some policy， contemporary更多地restricted to some slope of time。 关注于 feeling relationship.
Lecture 4 environment science讲 eco engineering
这篇文章主要对于global warming的新方法的讨论。先提出了以前两种经典方法和二氧化碳有关，把二氧化碳从低层抬高，反射辐射，然后 climate cooling.大概就是讲一个东西，跟其他类似的东西相比更便宜。
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