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解读官方新托福口语评分标准

啄木鸟教育 2016-02-27 11:11

  托福口语的分数是怎么来的?ETS对托福口语的评分标准又是什么?

  在今天的文章中,不仅介绍了托福口语分数是怎么算出来的,还就托福口语考试中每个分数段的口语评分标准,依次进行解读,希望托友们在阅读过之后能够明确考试方向,更有“针对性”的进行托福口语备考!

  一、新托福口语评分标准(OG官方完整版)

  评分标准:Score:4

  General Deion:

  The response fulfills the demands of the task, with atmost minor lapses in completeness. It is highly intelligible and exhibitssustained, coherent discourse. A response at this level is characterized by allof the following.

  Delivery:

  Generally well-paced flow (fluid expression). Speechis clear. It may include minor lapses, or minor difficulties with pronunciationor intonation patterns, which do not affect intelligibility.

  Language Use:

  The response demonstrates effective use of grammar andvocabulary. It exhibits a fairly high degree of automat city with good controlof basic and complex structures (as appropriate). Some minor (or systemic)errors are noticeable but do not obscure meaning.

  Topic Development:

  Response is sustained and sufficient to the task. Itis generally well developed and coherent; relationships between ideas are clear(or clear progression of ideas).

  评分标准:Score:3

  General Deion:

  The response addresses the task appropriately, but mayfall short of being fully developed. It is generally intelligible and coherent,with some fluidity of expression though it exhibits some noticeable lapses inthe expression of ideas. A response at this level is characterized by at leasttwo of the following.

  Delivery:

  Speech is generally clear, with some fluidity ofexpression, though minor difficulties with pronunciation, intonation, or pacingare noticeable and may require listener effort at times (though overallintelligibility is not significantly affected).

  Language Use:

  The responsedemonstrates fairly automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary andfairly coherent expression of relevant ideas. Response may exhibit someimprecise or inaccurate use of vocabulary or grammatical structures used. Thismay affect overall fluency, but it does not seriously interfere with thecommunication of the message.

  Topic Development:

  Response is mostly coherent and sustained and conveysrelevant ideas information. Overall development is somewhat limited, usuallylacks elaboration or specificity. Relationships between ideas may at times notbe immediately clear.

  评分标准:Score:2

  General Deion:

  The responseaddresses the task, but development of the topic is limited. It containsintelligible speech, although problems with delivery and/or overall coherenceoccur; meaning may be obscured in places. A response at this level ischaracterized by at least two of the following.

  Delivery:

  Speech is basically intelligible, though listenereffort is needed because of unclear articulation, awkward intonation, or choppyrhythm pace; meaning may be obscured in places.

  Language Use:

  The response demonstrates limited range and control ofgrammar and vocabulary .These limitations often prevent full expression ofideas. For the most part, only basic sentence structures are used successfullyand spoken with fluidity. Structures and vocabulary may express mainly simple(short) and/or general propositions, with simple or unclear connections madeamong them (serial listing, conjunction, juxtaposition).

  Topic Development:

  The response is connected to the task, though thenumber of ideas presented or the development of ideas is limited. Mostly basicideas are expressed with limited elaboration (details and support). At timesrelevant substance may be vaguely expressed or repetitious. Connections ofideas may be unclear

  评分标准:Score:1

  General Deion:

  The response is very limited in content and/orcoherence or is only minimally connected to the task, or speech is largelyunintelligible. A response at this level is characterized by at least two ofthe following.

  Delivery:

  Consistent pronunciation, stress, and intonationdifficulties cause considerable listener effort; delivery is choppy,fragmented, or telegraphic; frequent pauses and hesitations.

  Language Use:

  Range and control of grammar and vocabulary severelylimit (or prevent) expression of ideas and connections among ideas. Some lowlevel responses may rely heavily on practiced or formulaic expressions.

  Topic Development:

  Limited relevant content expressed. The responsegenerally lacks substance beyond expression of very basic ideas. Speaker may beunable to sustain speech to complete task and may rely heavily on repetition ofthe prompt.

  评分标准:Score:0

  Speaker makes no attempt to respond OR response isunrelated to the topic.

  二、新托福口语评分标准解读

  评分标准:四分(解读)

  A. General Deion

  所谓总体,就是整段录音给人的直观印象,是直觉,是并未用细则的评分标准来判断时的直接感受。ETS在Soring Rubic中对于总体要求的描述还是集中在“内容”层面为主。

  首先,“with at most minor lapses in completeness”表明了内容完整性的重要。不要以为会流利地发音,表面上说得很流畅、没有停顿iBT就能过关。ETS考察的是你用英语交流的能力,所以要说的让别人能听懂、能了解你的意思,那么意思的表达就要有首有尾,尽量形成一个complete cycle。

  其次,"highly intelligible and exhibits sustained, coherentdiscourse"说的是表达过程中逻辑的演绎要有条理。在口语前两题的叙述中,我们的逻辑可遵循老美常用的总分结构,一语中的。而不要用我们东方人习惯的“弯弯绕”般的“暗喻”,希望老美能猜透你的深层“精神内涵”。否则必败无疑。

  B. Delivery

  Delivery部分主要关注语言本身。首先是对说话时语音、语调、语速的要求。“Generally well-paced flow(fluid expression). Speech is clear.”有些同学对这句话有误读。中国学生尤其会偏向于加快自己的语速,觉得速度越快就是越流利,就说明自己对语言的掌握越熟练。其实“Fluid expression”讲的不是“快”,而是整体的“流畅”。这两个概念是有区别的。大家可以想一下中文的环境。如果一个人说得飞快,甚至在你还没理解前一句的情况下,他已经把第二句说完了,而且当中还夹杂着大舌之类的咬字不清,你会觉得舒服吗?相比之下,另一个人把一件事情娓娓道来(娓娓道来的意思不是慢),当中适当还有一些停顿来让你注意重点,你觉得他对语言的掌控相比前一个怎么样?所以,ETS才会要求有"well-paced flow"使得speech能够clear。

  说到语音语调,很多人就觉得是音标的问题,有的人也怕自己的口音会影响太大。说口音完全没有关系是不可能的,老实说,肯定口音越纯正听起来越舒服,这点毋庸置疑。但口音问题远远不是全部,诸如新加坡口音、印度口音的故事太多,我们也不用在此赘述了。关键问题是,我们中国人说英文常常没有“重点”,所谓的重点就是“抑扬顿挫”。大家小时候背古诗的时候都知道,光背字面意思毫无感情地一遍遍是很难记住的,而在真正理解诗意的情况下,带有感情地朗读出来很容易就能记住,而这时候你注意一下自己的发音的话,很多“字”都是有重点的、有重音的。这是因为你在用自己的思想讲话,而不是用舌头讲话。IBT的道理也是一样,所谓“把英文说得跟母语一样”就是用思想在讲话的境界。当然,我们可能做不到这一点。但有些技巧我们是能掌握的。

  技巧1: 重音。

  在一句话里总有你想强调的意思。举个老例子,大家读一下这句话“She always loves me.”试试看把重音每次强调在不同的单词上,读出区别来了吗?这就是重音的作用,即使是同一句话,因为重音的不同,所展示的背后的逻辑也就大相径庭。

  技巧2:适当停顿。

  英文说得好的人为什么让别人听起来会不累?因为他们都是在用“意群”表达。这就是说他们主动把一句话的意思拆成一小段一小段有重点地说给你听,帮助你理解。所以你也会听得津津有味,甚至觉得他思路非常清晰。我们在说话时活用停顿是很有用的,短暂的停顿会帮助把句意切成有机的整体,说出节奏感,而且起到引起注意、强调的作用。比如“The response fulfills the demands of the task / with at most minorlapses in completeness.”我们读这句的时候,斜杠的部分要注意停顿而不能一口气以同样的速度读下去。

  随后,“It may include minor lapses, or minor difficulties with pronunciationor intonation patterns, which do not affect intelligibility.”我们主要讨论"minor lapses"。

  我们常常在说的时候会出现停顿,这个不是前面所说的为了强调意群而故意做的,而是因为大脑一下子没跟上而嘴里不知道接下去该说什么。碰到这种情况,建议千万不要“留白”,也就是不要对着话筒一语不发,因为这样非但会弄得自己更紧张,而且你脑子里的空白会太明显,让ETS觉得你思路没法跟上。

  那碰到这样的瞬间空白怎么办呢?可以用一些过渡词来填补,会显得很自然,其实老美自己在说话时也会出现这样的大脑延迟,但他们不会一言不发,而用well...”,”you know…”,”I mean…”之类的话来等脑子跟上。大家也可以尝试着练一下,熟悉这种方法以后就会觉得自己说话不会一停一停,而是很fluid。当然最后说一句,这个方法也不是万能的,用得太多的话也会招人厌,所以要自己掌握下度。

  C. Language Use

  在Language Use部分我们中国学生往往要注意的不是别用词用句太简单,而是别用太复杂的句式。我们常常tend to use复杂的句式,一是因为从小的英文教育模式的关系,二是潜意识里认为会用从句套从句才牛,想用从句来压死老外。谁料先被压死的是自己。我们毕竟不是native speaker,当你口语中的句式太复杂时自己的逻辑就会被绕进去,而口语是不可能像作文那样让你回头检查好好琢磨主谓宾的。其次,老外实际说话的时候也不会用那么复杂的句式,意思表达清楚就好,太复杂反而Chinglish。

  比如说,一句“我每天早上都会去家旁边的公园里跑步,在那里我总是能看到很多有趣的我在上班的时候看不到的事情,在办公室上班总是很无聊、让我灰心丧气,所以我更喜欢

  每天早上的跑步了。”写成从句类型可能是“I go for jogging every morning in the park beside my home where Ialways find interesting things that I never see when I work in office in whichmy life is always boring and frustrating that makes me love jogging in themorning even more.”但当场用口语说出这句话可能到一半就找不着北了。所以个人建议我们口语中用从句的话最多1个,防止把自己绕进去。

  用嘴说的话,可能是这个版本"You know, I go for jogging every morning in the park besidesmy home. I always find interesting things there that I never see in the office.I feel the life in office is always boring and frustrating which makes me lovejogging in the morning even more.”从句和简单句结合,意思既清楚,表达又轻松,还有节奏感。

  D. Topic Development

  这部分说的是我们在短短45秒内逻辑的表达。比较有效、单刀直入的结构是“总起(直接回答问题)+ 理由1+ 理由1的支持论据 + 理由2 + 理由2的支持论据”,不用特意再加结尾句。

  总起句不用长,直接简单句回答问题就行。比如"My favorite city is Shanghai.", "The man I respectthe most is my father, for 2 reasons.”

  理由1的第一句,也是简单地阐述第一个支持理由。比如“First of all,Shanghai is a big city that provides me a lot of exposure and various workingopportunities.”

  这里想提醒大家,在说前两个口语topic的时候切忌说了一大堆理论化的理由,但没有一个是展开细节来支持的,这会让ETS觉得你的argument不够strong。

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