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ACT高分难句考法精析之定语从句考法技巧

北方网 2016-08-23 11:50

  面对ACT考试中的定语从句,考生该如何解题,下面小编就给大家讲讲ACT高分难句考法精析之定语从句考法技巧。

  考法1.定语从句难点举例(难度:困难)

  做定语的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句修饰的词叫做先行词。引导定语从句的关联词为关系代词(who, whom, whose, that, which等)和关系副词(when, where, why等,此处“关系副词”实则为连词词性)。关系代词在定语从句中可做主语、宾语、定语等;关系副词在定语从句中做状语。

  【例句】A survey of new stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.

  【结构】A survey of new stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities定语从句1who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to republicans定语从句2who advocated decreased funding for basic research.

  翻译:1996年进行的一次对新书的调查显示,“反科学”的标签也被贴在了很多别的人群的身上,包括提倡根除残余的天花病毒的权威机构,以及提倡削减基础科学研究资金的民主党人。

  l who引导第一个定语从句who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus,修饰authorities

  l who引导第二个定语从句who advocated decreased funding for basic research,修饰republicans

  l主句主干A survey reveals that...

  【例句】Not only are liver transplants never rejected,but they even induce a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness in which subsequent transplants of other organs, such as skin, from that donor are accepted permanently.

  【结构】Not only are liver transplants never rejected, but they even induce a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness定语从句in which subsequent transplants of other organs, such as skin, from that donor are accepted permanently.

  翻译:但是,我们已经发现,在许多种老鼠之间,这些移植法的“常规”并没有被肝脏移植物所遵循。肝脏移植物非但从没遭到过排斥,甚至还诱发了一种供者特异性无应答状态,在此状态中,随后来自那个供者其它器官的移植物,如皮肤,会永久地被接受。

  l in which引导定语从句,in which subsequent transplants of other organs, such as skin, from that donor are accepted permanently,修饰unresponsiveness

  l主句主干Not only are liver transplants never rejected, but they even induce a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness in which…

  【例句】This preference for exogamy, Gutman suggests, may have derived from West African rules governing marriage, which, though they differed from one tribal group to another, all involved some kind of prohibition against unions with close kin.

  【结构】This preference for exogamy, Gutman suggests, may have derived from West African rules governing marriage,定语从句which, though they differed from one tribal group to another , all involved some kind of prohibition against unions with close kin.

  翻译:古特曼表示,这种对于外部通婚的偏爱很有可能缘起于西部非洲制约着婚姻的规定,尽管这些规定在一个和另一个部落群体之间不尽相同,但都涉及到某种对近亲联姻的禁止。

  l which引导非限定性定语从句which, though they differed from one tribal group to another, all involved some kind of prohibition against unions with close kin,修饰West African rules

  l句子主干部分是This preference for exogamy may have derived from West African rules

  【例句】As my own studies have advanced, I have been increasingly impressed with the functional similarities between insect and vertebrate societies and less so with the structural differences that seem, at first glance, to constitute such an immense gulf between them.

  【结构】As my own studies have advanced, I have been increasingly impressed with the functional similarities between insect and vertebrate societies and less so with the structural differences定语从句that seem, at first glance, to constitute such an immense gulf between them.

  翻译:随着我的研究不断深入,我对昆虫和脊椎动物群落之间的功能类似性印象愈来愈深刻,而对结构上的差异印象愈发淡漠,虽然这些结构上的差异初看上去似乎构成了二者间一条无法愈越的鸿沟。

  l that引导定语从句that seem, at first glance, to constitute such an immense gulf between them,修饰structural differences

  l句子主干部分是I have been increasingly impressed with...and less so (impressed) with...

  【例句】His view is shared by those who get little extra money but whose jobs are much tougher.

  【结构】His view is shared by those定语从句1who get little extra money but定语从句2whose jobs are much tougher.

  翻译:他的观点被那些获得很少额外收入但是工作更加困难的人分享。

  l who和whose引导定语从句who get little extra money和whose jobs are much tougher,修饰those

  l句子主干部分是His view is shared by those who… but whose…

  【例句】Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools.

  【结构】Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles,定语从句1which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books定语从句2who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life,定语从句3whose own children are enrolled in private schools.

  翻译:相反,我们被款待看到这样一些虚伪的壮观景象,他们似乎比以前的任何时候都更供应充足:美国式物质主义的批判者却拥有位于南安普顿的避暑山庄:激进书籍的出版商却在三星级餐厅享用一日三餐;倡导在人生各个阶段的参与民主制的记者,他的子女却就读于私立学校

  l which引导定语从句which now more than ever seem in ample supply,修饰spectacles

  l who引导定语从句who takes his meals in three-star restaurants,修饰publisher

  l whose引导定语从句whose own children are enrolled in private schools,修饰journalist

  l句子主干部分是we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles: the critic; the publisher; the journalist

  考法2.定语从句的省略(难度:困难)

  定语从句中有时存在省略现象。定语从句中的who、whom、whose、that、which等关联词在从句中做宾语时可以被省略。阅读时需要分清主从句关系。

  【例句】The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behavior but one of imposing constraints—ways of feeling, thinking, and acting that "come naturally" in archetypal situations in any culture.

  【结构】The role省略(that)定语从句those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behavior but one of imposing constraints—ways of feeling, thinking, and acting that "come naturally" in archetypal situations in any culture.

  翻译:这些人类学家所归诸于生物进化的作用,不是规定人类行为的种种细节,而是将各种限制强加于人类——即在任何文化的典型情景中都会“自然表露”的情感、思维、以及行动方式。

  l (省略的that)引导定语从句those anthropologists ascribe to evolution,修饰the role

  l role在从句中作ascribe的宾语,省略了引导词that

  l句子主干部分是The role is not...but...

  【例句】Virginia Woolf’s provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics,since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the "poetic" novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness.

  【结构】Virginia Woolf’s provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics, since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests省略(that is)定语从句very different from the traditional picture of the "poetic" novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness.

  翻译:弗吉尼亚.伍尔夫在创作《黛洛维夫人》时有关其创作意图的这番发人深思的陈述,迄今为止一贯为文学评论家们所忽略,因为它突出反映了她诸多文学兴趣中某一方面,而这一方面则与人们对“诗性”小说家所形成的传统见解大相径庭。所谓的“诗性”小说家,所关注的是审视想入非非和白日梦幻的诸般状态,并致力于追寻个体意识的通幽曲径。

  l (省略的that is)引导定语从句very different from the traditional picture of the "poetic" novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness ,修饰an aspect

  l句子主干部分是Virginia Woolf’s provocative statement has regularly been ignored by the critics, since...

  定语从句所含的从句结构如果是一个人所发表的观点,从句作用如同插入语,做补充说明。此时,复合定语从句的主语可被省略。

  【例句】I’ve climbed mountains by routes the guide said were impossible.

  【结构】I’ve climbed mountains by routes省略(which)定语从句the guide said were impossible.

  翻译:我沿着一些路爬过重山,所走的路向导说是不可能通行的。

  l (省略的which)引导定语从句the guide said were impossible,修饰routes

  l句子主干部分是I’ve climbed mountains

  【例句】I dare say he could show me corners of this house I never knew existed.

  【结构】I dare say he could show me corners of this house省略(which)定语从句I never knew existed.

  翻译:我想他也许可以带我看看这房子一些我从不知道的角落。

  l (省略的which)引导定语从句I never knew existed,修饰corners of this house

  l句子主干部分是he could show me corners of this house

  考法3.定语从句关系代词做介词宾语(难度:困难)

  关系代词在定语从句中可做介词的宾语。介词放在从句的开首,产生with which、by which、to whom等形式。阅读时,需要弄清在正常语序中,从句中哪个动词与介词相搭配。

  【例句】The rumors, none of which were founded, brought about his defeat in the last election.

  The rumors,定语从句none of which were founded, brought about his defeat in the last election.

  翻译:那些谣言,其中没有一个是有依据的,导致他在这次选举中失败。

  l none of which引导定语从句none of which were founded,修饰rumors

  l正常语序为None of the rumors were founded, but they brought about his defeat in the last election.

  l句子的主干部分是The rumors brought about his defeat.

  【例句】The avidness with which merchants and landowners in early-nineteenth-century Maryland and Virginia sought Joshua Johnston`s professional services attests to his artistic skill as a portrait painter.

  【结构】The avidness定语从句with which merchants and landowners in early-nineteenth-century Maryland and Virginia sought Joshua Johnston`s professional services attests to his artistic skill as a portrait painter.

  翻译:在早期19世纪的马里兰和弗吉尼亚,商人和地主带着热情追求Joshua Johnston的专业服务证明他是一个具有高超技艺的肖像画画家。

  l with which引导定语从句with which merchants and landowners in early-nineteenth-century Maryland and Virginia sought Joshua Johnston`s professional services,修饰avidness

  l正常语序为merchants and landowners in early-nineteenth-century Maryland and Virginia sought Joshua Johnston`s professional services with the avidness

  l句子的主干部分是The avideness attests to his artistic skill as a portrait painter

  【例句】The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were the era when Pueblo pottery was least likely to be preserved and from which consequently, the fewest authentic examples survive.

  The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were the era when Pueblo pottery was least likely to be preserved and定语从句from which consequently, the fewest authentic examples survive.

  翻译:17及18世纪是Pueblo瓷器最不可能被保护的时期,结果,其中遗留下来的真迹少之又少。

  l from which引导定语从句from which consequently, the fewest authentic examples survive,修饰era

  l正常语序为the fewest authentic examples survive from the era

  l句子的主干部分是The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were the era

  短语in which case引导定语从句是常见的表达方式,翻译为“在此种情况下”。

  【例句】It was even claimed that the surface might be largely ocean covered, in which case the atmospheric carbon dioxide would have fouled the water and produced seas of soda water.

  【结构】It was even claimed that the surface might be largely ocean covered,定语从句in which case the atmospheric carbon dioxide would have fouled the water and produced seas of soda water.

  翻译:甚至有声明说它的表面可能被大面积的海洋所覆盖,在这种情况下大气层中的二氧化碳污染了水源,创造出苏打水的海洋。

  l in which引导定语从句in which case the atmospheric carbon dioxide would have fouled the water and produced seas of soda water

  l正常语序为the atmospheric carbon dioxide would have fouled the water and produced seas of soda water in the case

  l句子主干部分是the surface might be largely ocean covered

  Whereby作为关系副词时,可以引导定语从句,翻译为“凭什么;为何”,相当于by which,同理whereof相当于of which,翻译为“关于什么”。

  【例句】We need to devise some sort of system whereby people can liaise with each other.

  【结构】We need to devise some sort of system定语从句whereby people can liaise with each other.

  翻译:我们须想出一套方法,凭此大家能够互相联络。

  l whereby引导定语从句whereby people can liaise with each other,修饰system

  l whereby = by which

  l句子主干部分是We need to devise some sort of system

  【例句】The name "transferware" comes from a nineteenth-century technique whereby a pattern is engraved onto a copper roll, printed on tissue paper, and transferred onto earthware dishes.

  【结构】The name "transferware" comes from a nineteenth-century technique定语从句whereby a pattern is engraved onto a copper roll, printed on tissue paper, and transferred onto earthware dishes.

  翻译:这个名称来自十九世纪的技术,借助这种技术,花样先被雕刻到铜滚上,然后印到薄纸,最后复制到陶瓷盘上。

  l whereby引导定语从句whereby a pattern is engraved onto a copper roll, printed on tissue paper, and transferred onto earthware dishes,修饰technique

  l whereby = for which

  l句子主干部分是The name "transferware" comes from a nineteenth-century technique

  (练习一)专项练习

  划分出下列句子的定语从句,并翻译整个句子

  1. Scientists are seeking to calculate the odds that any number of endangered or threatened species are likely to survive into the twenty-first century, and among the many questions they ask is how much genetic diversity a creature requires if it is to rebound from the brink of extinction.

  2. A singular disadvantage of the sea lies in the fact that after successfully surmounting one wave you discover that there is another behind it just as important and just as nervously anxious to do something effective in the way of swamping boats.

  3. The man about whom I told you last night is standing over there.

  4. This boy, with whom I used to play when I was a child and who has since become famous, was the son of a farmer.

  参考答案

  Scientists are seeking to calculate the odds定语从句that any number of endangered or threatened species are likely to survive into the twenty-first century, and among the many questions they ask is how much genetic diversity a creature requires if it is to rebound from the brink of extinction.翻译:科学家试图计算出诸多濒临灭绝的或受到威胁的物种能延续到21世纪的几率有多大,他们的问题之一就是要逃离灭绝的边缘需要怎样的遗传差异。

  A singular disadvantage of the sea lies in the fact定语从句that after successfully surmounting one wave you discover that there is another behind it just as important and just as nervously anxious to do something effective in the way of swamping boats.翻译:海洋唯一的缺点在于你跨越一个巨浪之后,会发现后面又是一个巨浪,要保证船只不会沉没,需要重视海浪,并采取有效措施。

  The man定语从句about whom I told you last night is standing over there.翻译:昨晚我和说的那个人就站在那边。

  This boy,定语从句1with whom I used to play when I was a child and定语从句2who has since become famous, was the son of a farmer.翻译:这个男孩的父亲是个农夫,儿时我们常常一起玩耍,后来男孩成名了。

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