Each of two particular inspection systems that are based on different principles would detect all product flaws but would also erroneously reject three percent of flawless products.Assuming there is no overlap between the products erroneously rejected by the two systems and also no interference between the systems if both operate，using both systems and rejecting only those products found flawed by both would be a way of avoiding all erroneous rejections.
Which of the following most precisely characterizes the reasoning in the argument？
（A）The reasoning is conclusive，that is，the conclusion cannot be false if the statements offered in its support are true.
（B）The reasoning is strong but not conclusive，if the statements offered in support of the conclusion are true，they provide good grounds for that conclu-sion，though it is possible that additional infor-mation might weaken the argument.
（C）The reasoning is weak; the statements offered in support of the conclusion，though relevant to it，by themselves provide at best inadequate grounds for the conclusion.
（D）The reasoning is flawed in that the conclusion is no more than a paraphrase of one of the pieces of evidence offered in its support.
（E）The reasoning is flawed in that the argument treats evidence that a factor is necessary to bring about an event as if it were evidence that the factor is sufficient to bring about that event.
In recent years，there has been a dramatic decline in the population of the shrike，a predatory bird that inhabits flat land，such as farms and pastures.Some ornithologists hypothesize that this decline is due to the introduction of new，more effective pesticides to control the insect species on which shrikes prey.
The answer to which of the following questions is NOT relevant to evaluating the ornithologists‘ hypothesis？
（A）Was there a decline in the shrike population before the new pesticides were first used？
（B）Have shrike populations declined significantly in those habitats where the new pesticides have not been used？
（C）Have the new pesticides more significantly reduced the population of insect species on which shrikes prey than did the pesticides previously used？
（D）Are insects that have consumed the new pesti-cides more toxic to the shrikes that eat those insects than were insects that consumed the less effective pesticides？
（E）Are the new pesticides considered by most people to be less harmful to the environment than the old pesticides were considered to be？
Certain extremely harmful bacteria found only in sewage are difficult to detect directly.Testing for E.coli，an easily detected and less harmful type of bacteria，in ocean water would be a reliable way of determining whether or not these more harmful bac-teria are present，since ocean water contains E.Coli only if the water is contaminated with sewage that contains the harmful bacteria.
Which of the following，if true，most seriously weakens the argument？
（A）There are many different strains of the E.coli bacteria，and only some of these strains are harmful.
（B）Some types of bacteria found in sewage are neither disease-causing nor difficult to detect directly.
（C）Some of the types of bacteria found in sewage along with E.coli are not harmful to people unless the bacteria are ingested in large quantities.
（D）E.coli dies out much more quickly than some of the more harmful bacteria found in sewage and then can no longer be easily detected.
（E）Some of the types of bacteria found in sewage along with E.coli reproduce at a slower rate than E.coli
For more than fifty years， many evolutionary biologists posited that early fish such as Eusthenopteron developed limbs as a result of the need to drag themselves across short distances when their watery habitats dried up during periods of drought. However， new fossil evidence suggests that this hypothesis is incorrect. Fossilized remains of Acanthostega， a primitive fish， reveal that even though the animal had rudimentary limbs， it could not walk on land. Acanthostega lacked ankles， which means that its limbs couldn’t support its weight; furthermore， its ribs were too short to prevent the organism’s chest cavity from collapsing once the animal left water.
1. Which of the following would most strengthen the author’s argument？
A. The fossilized remains of the Acanthostega are the earliest known evidence of early fish.
B. The modem descendants of Acanthostega are not able to drag themselves across short distances on land.
C. Biologists have found that some aquatic species can successfully drag themselves across land even though these species do not possess ankles.
D. Any animal with a collapsed chest cavity is not able to survive long enough to travel even a short distance across land.
E. Some evolutionary biologists believe that the new fossils are not from Acanthostega.
Anaerobic glycolysis is a process in which energy is produced， without oxygen，
through the breakdown of muscle glycogen into lactic acid and adenosine
triphosphate （ATP）， the energy provider. The amount of energy that can be
produced anaerobically is a function of the amount of glycogen present—in all
vertebrates about 0.5 percent of their muscles’ wet weight. Thus the anaerobic
energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the size of the animal. If， for
example， some predators had attacked a 100-ton dinosaur， normally torpid， the
dinosaur would have been able to generate almost instantaneously， via
anaerobic glycolysis， the energy of 3，000 humans at maximum oxidative
metabolic energy production.
1. The passage‘s suggestion that the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate‘s size is based on which of the following assumption？
（A） larger vertebrates conserve more energy than smaller vertebrates
（B） larger vertebrates use less oxygen per unit weight than smaller vertebrates
（C） the ability of a vertebrate to consume food is a function of its size
（D） the amount of muscle tissue in a vertebrate is directly related to its size
（E） the size of a vertebrate is proportional to the quantity of energy it can utilize
解析：文本是关于无氧糖酵解产生能量的这程，且提出动物体积越大，所产生的能量储备也就越多。以恐龙为例，说明其遭遇攻击所能产生的能星之巨大。题干中问“the total anaerobic energy reserves of a vertebrate are proportional to the vertebrate’ s size”这一论点是根据哪一条假定推断出来的，通读选项不难得出E。
In 1998 the United States Department of Transportation received nearly 10，000 consumer complaints about airlines; in 1999 it received over 20，000. Moreover， the number of complaints per 100，000 passengers also more than doubled. In both years the vast majority of complaints concerned flight delays， cancellations， mishandled baggage， and customer service. Clearly， therefore， despite the United States airline industry’s serious efforts to improve performance in these areas， passenger dissatisfaction with airline service increased significantly in 1999.
1. Which of the following， if true， most seriously weakens the argument？
A. Although the percentage of flights that arrived on time dropped slightly overall， from 77 percent in 1998 to 76 percent in 1999， some United States airlines’ 1999 on-time rate was actually better than their 1998 on-time rate.
B. The number of passengers flying on United States airlines was significantly higher in 1999 than in 1998.
C. Fewer bags per 1，000 passengers flying on United States airlines were lost or delayed in 1999 than in 1998.
D. The appearance in 1999 of many new Internet sites that relay complaints directly to the Department of Transportation has made filing a complaint about airlines much easier for consumers than ever before.
E. Although the number of consumer complaints increased for every major United States airline in 1999， for some airlines the extent of the increase was substantial， whereas for others it was extremely small.