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GMAT考试语法中的相对正确性例题示范及解析

教育人生网 2016-03-16 11:13

  1.Downzoning, zoning that typically results in the reduction of housing density, allows for more open space in areas where little water or services exist.

  (A) little water or services exist

  (B) little water or services exists

  (C) few services and little water exists

  (D) there is little water or services available

  (E) there are few services and little available water

  这是一道典型的难题,充分体现了GMAT语法中的相对正确性的原则。A选项中little这个词既修饰了water又修饰了services,但是little只能修饰不可数名词,所以它只能修饰water而不能修饰services, 所以A选项语法是不对的,而这是个正确性的错误。同样B和D都犯了类似的错误。C选项中主语few services and little water是复数,而谓语却是单数,也错了。E选项其实也有错,首先用了there be的句型,这在GMAT语法中一般是不允许的,其次又加了available这个词,把原文的意思也改变了,但这些错误从性质上来看只是有效性的错误,起码它语法是正确的,而A,B,C,D语法都错了,所以答案选E。

  我们再看一道非常类似GMAT语法中的相对正确性的题目:

  2.The commission acknowledged that no amount of money or staff members can ensure the safety of people who live in the vicinity of a nuclear plant, but it approved the installation because it believed that all reasonable precautions had been taken.

  (A) no amount of money or staff members

  (B) neither vast amounts of money nor staff members

  (C) neither vast amounts of money nor numbers of staff members

  (D) neither vast amounts of money nor a large staff

  (E) no matter how large the staff or how vast the amount of money

  这道题目和刚才那题非常类似,amount of 这个短语可以修饰不可数名词但不能修饰可数名词,而A和B选项中amount of同时修饰了money这个不可数名词和staff members这个可数名词,所以都是错误选项。C选项中出现了numbers of,这是个错误的表达方式,表示某物的数量应该用the number of,所以也错了。E选项no matter how 罗嗦,首先用however会显得更为简洁,而其实即使改用however还是错,因为这是个强烈语气表达,原文中没有使用正确答案就不能使用。答案选D,有些凭语感解题的同学会觉得D选项看上去很不顺眼,但解GMAT语法题千万不能凭语感,而要靠扎扎实实的语法分析。A,B,C,E都存在着一定程度的错误,所以答案选D。

  最后我们再看一道题来说明从几个都是错误的选项中来找出一个相对正确答案的应用。

  3.The modernization program for the steel mill will cost approximately 51 million dollars, which it is hoped can be completed in the late 1980's.

  (A) The modernization program for the steel mill will cost approximately 51 million dollars, which it is hoped can be completed in the late 1980's.

  (B) The modernization program for the steel mill, hopefully completed in the late 1980's, will cost approximately 51 million dollars.

  (C) Modernizing the steel mill, hopefully to be completed in the late 1980's, will cost approximately 51 million dollars.

  (D) The program for modernizing the steel mill, which can, it is hoped, be completed in the late 1980's and cost approximately 51 million dollars.

  (E) Modernizing the steel mill, a program that can, it is hoped, be completed in the late 1980's, will cost approximately 51 million dollars.

  这道题目中A选项的it is hoped是个插入语,应该前后用两个逗号隔开。而且A中的which语法上看指代了dollar美圆,而从逻辑来分析其实是应该指代program项目的,所以A错了。B选项和C选项用了hopefully这个词,这不符合商业英文的用法,一般是错误的,应该改为it is hoped。D选项犯了个非常严重的语法错误,它缺少谓语,所以肯定是错误选项。最后答案选E,而其实E选项也只是个相对最佳而非绝对最优,因为它放了Modernizing the steel mill这个分词结构做主语,应该把它改成the modernization of the steel mill名词形式来做主语会更好一点,但由于这只是个不简洁的错误,属于有效性的错误,与A,B,C,D的错误性质比较起来显得轻微许多,所以答案选E。

  通过这几题的讲解,相信大家已经掌握了GMAT语法中的相对正确性用法。在下一次我们将会给大家介绍如何从几个都是正确的选项中找出一个最符合正确答案特征的选项来做为正确答案。

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