Used in this way， intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process （in which） a manager recognizes familiar patterns.
从句的主干是a manager recognizes familiar patterns，主谓都在吧？对，都在！那么which在从句里面就不是主语了，那它有什么作用呢？
记住：以后读到这种结构的时候，把“介词+ which”直接放到从句里面去理解。就像这样：a manager recognizes familiar patterns in （the） process
Because consumers recognize that color advertisements are more expensive than black-and-white， the point at which repetition of an advertisement is perceived as excessive comes sooner for a color advertisement than for a black-and-white advertisement.
at which指代at the point，放到后面从句里去，从句的主干也找出来：
repetition of an advertisement is perceived as excessive （at the point）
the point （at which repetition of an advertisement is perceived as excessive） comes （sooner） for a color advertisement （than） for a black-and-white advertisement
Some scholars have argued that Garvey created the consciousness from which he built， in the 1920s， the largest revitalization movement in African American history.
However， none of these high-technology methods are of any value if the sites to which they are applied have never mineralized， and to maximize the chances of discovery the explorer must therefore pay particular attention to selecting the ground formations most likely to be mineralized.
Although this treaty did not mention water rights， the Court ruled that the federal government， when it created the reservation， intended to deal fairly with American Indians by reserving for them the waters without which their lands would have been useless.
he built the largest revitalization movement in African American history （from consciousness）
they are applied to the sites — if the sites have never mineralized
their lands would have been useless without the waters